Are Fracking Wastewater Wells Poisoning the Ground beneath Our Feet?

VigilantCitizen He was once a powerful, untouchable Hollywood mogul. He has now fallen from grace and was fired from the company bearing his name. Harvey Weinstein is the archetype of the sleazebag Hollywood producer. He promised young and beautiful actresses roles in exchange for sexual favors. If the subjects of his advances dared to turn on him, he would throw money at them until they shut up. Or worse, he would threaten to destroy their career through his mass media connections. Harvey Weinstein was one of them. Even worse, it was a running gag. The crowd laughter is somewhat disturbing.

How Does Carbon Dating Work

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Nonradiometric dating In addition to radioactive decay , many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a priori grounds whether such rates are representative of the past.

Periods of abnormally high rainfall can result in groundwater flooding of basements and the emergence of groundwater at the ground surface, causing damage to property and infrastructure.

We have measured 4HC rad along shallow groundwater flow paths at a variety of hydrogeologically distinct sites and postulate its use for dating groundwater as young as years. A solute transport model suggests that the aquifer solids are the source of 4He rad as vertical fluid velocities are too great to allow upward diffusion of 4He rad from the underlying shield rocks. Laboratory release experiments conducted by sequentially heating the aquifer solids, measuring the amount of 4He released, and then extrapolating release rates to the in situ temperature agree well with the field results and suggest that diffusion from aquifer solids is the source of 4He rad.

The combined laboratory and field release data yield 4He diffusion coefficients that exhibit an Arrhenius temperature dependence that is similar to 4He diffusion in quartz reported by other researchers. The 4He rad release rate at the Ontario site is extraordinarily similar to sites in Tennessee, Nebraska, and Germany in spite of major hydrogeologic differences. Both observations and modeling suggest that 4He may be useful as a groundwater dating tool over a range of tens to hundreds of years.

The latter is particularly important because no other groundwater dating techniques are accurate for waters ranging from 40 to about years old.

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If you were unable to attend and would like to make a donation, please click on Donation on right hand corner. Click the image to see the La Voz edition in pdf. The Montopolis community held numerous meetings to discuss the concerns, issues and recommendations of the residents. The 28 acres has wetlands, natural springs, huge trees, plants and is home to wildlife deer, foxes, birds etc.

This site needs to become a Preserve and not home to disc golf. Stop the displacement of our wildlife and the destruction of our natural resources.

Geochronology – Nonradiometric dating: In addition to radioactive decay, many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a.

Formation[ edit ] Sinkholes near the Dead Sea , formed when underground salt is dissolved by freshwater intrusion, due to continuing sea-level drop. Collapse sinkhole in gypsum , near Madrid, central Spain. Natural processes[ edit ] Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in specific locations.

Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in large limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. For example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void. Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below.

Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock , salt beds , or in other soluble rocks, such as gypsum , [10] that can be dissolved naturally by circulating ground water. Sinkholes also occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. These sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support.

Then, a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur.

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General characteristics[ edit ] The deposition of aquifer material dates back two to six million years, from the late Miocene to early Pliocene ages when the southern Rocky Mountains were still tectonically active. From the uplands to the west, rivers and streams cut channels in a generally west to east or southeast direction. Erosion of the Rockies provided alluvial and aeolian sediment that filled the ancient channels and eventually covered the entire area of the present-day aquifer, forming the water-bearing Ogallala Formation.

The major differences are time and depth.

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Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them.

Groundwater Resources

A small-neck bottle will generally seal better than large-neck bottle but both are fine. We no longer recommend adding a small amount of NaOH to the sample. This was a necessary step in the process of DIC precipitation but not for the gas strip method used by our lab. Please let us know if your samples contain salt or have been in the proximity of any location using labeled 14C artificial 14C.

Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA – definition).. Such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the.

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.

Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates.

Radioactive contamination

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, By contrast, the volume of surface water in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and swamps could be contained in a depth of about one quarter of a metre. It is extremely difficult to estimate the volume of groundwater on the entire planet. However, all the estimates imply that if we do not include the water frozen in ice caps, glaciers and permanent snow, groundwater makes up almost the entire volume of the earth’s usable fresh water. Adapted from Figure 2, Freshwater Series No.

Feb 17,  · The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.

THE Supreme Court has initiated suo motu proceedings regarding the excessive and unregulated extraction of groundwater by bottling companies. To be fair, the court is driven by a genuine desire to conserve our aquifers but because judges are not perceived as well suited to handling questions of policy, the focus thus far has been on short-term fixes only. A proper resolution of the issue requires us to address the structural problem first. Groundwater is a scarce resource and every time a state is confronted with conditions of scarcity, it must undertake the process of resource allocation.

This effectively means that when there are multiple people with competing claims over the same resources, society must devise a mechanism to determine how those limited resources are to be distributed amongst the claimants and which claim is to be prioritised over the other. Property law serves that function.

It helps allocate limited resources and then provides a framework through which those resources can be transferred between people once the initial allocation has taken place. Our structural difficulties with the regulation of groundwater extraction start here because we have never managed to do the initial allocation of rights in groundwater correctly. If property rights in groundwater are not properly delineated, it is simply not possible to regulate its use effectively. A mechanism is needed to resolve the distribution of limited resources.

Consider the case of Punjab where groundwater is subject to the overlapping control of a number of different bodies.

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