The Alhambra

Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises. I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced. The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s. The width shown is around mm of the original. Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined.

Are you eating food sacrificed to idols?

It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.

These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design.

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Muhammad is the Messenger of God, may God grant him peace Muhammad is the Messenger of God. Verily God and His Angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe, bless him and salute him with a salutation! Muhammad is the Messenger of God, the blessing of God be on him and the angels and His prophets, and peace be on him, and may God have mercy Muhammad is the Messenger of God, the blessing of God be on him. May He accept his intercession on the Day of Judgment [on behalf of his people] Muhammad is the servant of God and His Messenger.

Are you eating food sacrificed to idols?

Home Inventories Courses Reference Pre-prints E-publics In the news Islamic manuscripts reference library This part of the Islamic manuscripts site contains many out of print publications which are nowadays often difficult to find. The section is continually being expanded. This section also contains recent publications some of which may still be in print. These have usually been included with the permission of the owners of the copyright, sometimes with mention of the websites where such publications can be purchased.

This section of the site also contains older catalogues of Islamic manuscripts, which are now out-of-print, and a great number of other relevant publications. Downloading of files must be in accordance with the relevant laws in the country of the downloader.

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The Quran directly addresses the matter of polygyny in Chapter 4 Verse 3, ” Marry of the women that you please: But if you feel that you should not be able to deal justly, then only one or what your right hand possesses. That would be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice. With changing economic conditions, female empowerment, and acceptance of family planning practices, polygamy seems to be severely declining as an acceptable and viable marriage practice within the Muslim world.

This day the good things are allowed to you. While these scholars use “established and approved methodologies” in order to claim new conclusions, they are still met with a considerable amount of opposition from the majority of orthodox Islamic scholars and interpreters. Young Muslim men and women are strongly encouraged to marry as soon as possible, since the family is recognized as the foundation of Islamic society. These traits are pointed out in Quran Chapter 33 Verse 35 “For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s praise, for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.

A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into marriage is called wali mujbir. Forced marriage is absolutely and explicitly forbidden. Since traditional Muslim societies are generally religiously heterogeneous, it is much easier for individuals to find socially acceptable partners through traditional methods. Within these communities, families, friends, and services are used to help people find a significant other.

These Muslims must use alternate methods in order to find a partner in a way that closely simulates the traditional process.

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Islamic State or IS , declaring itself a worldwide caliphate. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it ‘Daesh’ and I will be calling them the ‘Daesh cutthroats.

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The Alhambra is a fortress enclosed by a wall, containing palaces, houses, streets, and towers of various sizes and unctions. It is a city unique in its design, chronology, and present condition. The Alhambra, the palace complex of the Nasrid dynasty in Granada, can perhaps be considered as one of the most famous examples of Islamic art overall, but is certainly the culmination and grand finale of medieval Islamic culture on the Iberian Peninsula.

The palace complex of the Alhambra viewed from the hill of the Albaicin. Ground plan of the Alhambra The history of the Alhambra building complex, however, stretches right back in Islamic times to the 9th century. The earliest buildings of the Alhambra that can be dated are from the 11 th century, from the time of the Zirid dynasty, under which a forerunner of the Alcazaba came into being. The present area of the Alhambra, with its wall and its earliest towers in position, began to take shape under the Nasrids, the last Islamic sultanate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the first few decades of the 13th century.

The dynasty had made the southern Spanish city of Granada the capital of its kingdom. For a long time, the sultanate was able to exist alongside the Christian rules by means of a skillful policy of treaties, vassalage, and military campaigns, while at the same time being adept at furthering its own cultural development. Construction of the Generalife, a summer palace near the Alhambra that underwent many alterations by subsequent sultans, probably started at the beginning of Nasrid rule.

Islamic marital practices

The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in , in which October 4, of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date. When comparing historical dates, it’s important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.

Britain and her colonies including what is now the United States , did not switch to the Gregorian calendar until , when Wednesday 2nd September in the Julian calendar dawned as Thursday the 14th in the Gregorian.

If you are looking for an ideal Islamic dating sites or Muslim dating sites where you can meet people that are in your own religion, you should strongly consider some of the following factors when picking out the best dating site: the search filter options, the number of users, the profile/match quality and the messaging/user interface.

It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.

These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design. While not demonstrating the wide variety of geometric treatments to be found in Islamic or Arab geometries, they are here to introduce something of the design character and materials that were used in decoration.

But having said that, I believe it would be useful to begin this page with a note on the understanding we in the West have of Arabic or, perhaps more accurately, Islamic geometrical design as it is a wide field of study and there are many misconceptions about its origins, interpretation and character. The patterns with which we are familiar are to be found within a variety of Islamic cultures, but are often considered to be common to areas of Arab conquest.

At its simplest, Arab scholarship enlarged our comprehension of underlying geometries, and Muslim craftsmen, not all of them Arabs, relied on this body of knowledge in producing their characteristic fields of tiles, mosaic, plaster and wooden patterns that were applied to elements of their buildings. Generally they are seen as two-dimensional surface treatments, though there are examples of three-dimensional work in many areas of the Islamic world, particularly with the muqarnas.

To take the argument a little further, the distinction might suggest that the work is considered Islamic when employed in the service of religious buildings. However, with Islam governing all aspects of Muslim life, the argument would suggest that geometric designs, with their inherent character supporting introversion and reflection, should all be considered Islamic. The first point to bear in mind is that there are three types of patterning common to the designs found in Islamic cultures: Arabesque or cursive, calligraphic, and geometric or polygonal, the latter of which contains the largest number of examples we are likely to come across, and is the area most commonly examined from the perspective of their mathematical bases.

___ Satellite View and Map of the City of Tehran (تهران Tehrān)

Introduction Radiocarbon, or Carbon dating, was developed by W. It is perhaps one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods and has become an indispensable part of an archaeologist’s tool-kit. In , Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for radiocarbon dating.

May 14,  · In addition, the website has literally thousands of articles about marriage in Islam, family issues, Islamic advice and special features. I’ve been single (divorced, actually) for several years. I have not actually used the service myself in looking for a wife, because I felt it would be a little creepy to contact a sister and say, “Hi, I’m.

Its extensive collections were moved to the impressive building of the traditional Souq Al Majarrah to be reinterpreted and redisplayed. Why you should visit Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization The Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization holds thousands of rare and important Islamic artifacts, Here; you can admire the timeless achievements of Islamic civilization and its universality, learn about aspects of Islamic faith, science, discoveries and culture, and cherish the beauty of Islamic art.

The new Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization presents more than five thousand exquisite Islamic artifacts from all over the Islamic World, arranged according to themes and spread over seven spacious galleries and display areas. The museum comprises seven spacious galleries and display areas for its permanent collection organized as follows: It presents the five pillars of Islam, important principles of Islamic doctrine and a fascinating account of the Hajj or Islamic pilgrimage.

Sophisticated three-dimensional models, audiovisuals and extensive information panels chart some of the most outstanding discoveries, inventions and theories developed by Islamic scholars in such fields as astronomy, medicine, geography, architecture, mathematics, chemistry, military technology, marine navigation and engineering.

Islamic Art Gallery 1 This gallery shows a wide range of artefacts such as pottery, metalwork, woodcarving, manuscripts and textiles, made in the Islamic world between the 1st century AH 7th century AD and the 7th century AH 13th century AD. This early period marked the expansion of Islamic civilization and culture from the Arabian peninsula to the Atlantic in the West and the borders of China in the East.

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Dar-al-Jil, , p. Islamic leaders go to extraordinary means to hide the Gospel of Jesus from Muslims. Just as Satan wails at a crucifix at an exorcism – the Islamic cult member normally wails at the sight of the Christian Bible. A false prophet can always be recognized, because he attacks the true prophet. A false Bible can be recognized, because it contradicts the true Bible.

Helahel is a place for single Muslims to interact with others who hold the same traditional Islamic values and meet a partner for marriage. At Helahel, we want to help build strong relationships built on shared principles and trust, which is why this site is completely free to use.

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Islamic marital practices

Islamists often identify what they see as a historical struggle between Christianity and Islam , dating back as far as the Crusades , among other historical conflicts between practitioners of the two respective religions. Osama bin Laden , for example, almost invariably described his enemies as aggressive and his call for action against them as defensive. Defensive jihad differs from offensive jihad by being ” fard al-ayn”, or a personal obligation of all Muslims, rather than “fard al-kifaya”, a communal obligation, that is, some Muslims may perform it but it is not required of others.

Hence, framing a fight as defensive has the advantage of both appearing to be a victim rather than appearing to be an aggressor, and giving the struggle the very highest religious priority for all good Muslims.

Islamic Dating Websites Find someone with an online dating service is an option that is now familiar to most. On the other hand, traditional dating means that you establish everything much more “up front” at the beginning, and there is the added benefit of recommendations from friends and family.

Every time you see a news story about Muslims in any part of the world, you are seeing some aspect of Muslim culture. Many of these similarities are present in most, if not all, Muslim societie s. Even though there are over a billion Muslims throughout the world. Even though we speak hundreds of different languages. Even though we live in dozens of different countries. We still share a common Muslim culture.

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